Product /Project Title:
3150 m3 (850 MG) Cryogenic Liquid Nitrogen Tank
Overall Height or Length:
Steel Tonnage Used:
221 (120 CS/100 SS) Tons
Steel Thickness (inches):
This double wall cryogenic liquid nitrogen tank was designed, fabricated, erected, insulated and painted for a southwestern air separation plant. The tank was completed and put into service in 2013.
The tank was designed to the exacting API-620 Standard and consists of a Stainless Steel inner tank (storing 830,000 Gallons of liquid nitrogen at -320 F) surrounded by a Carbon Steel outer tank. The annular space between the inner and outer tank was filled with perlite insulation. The two tanks act as a gigantic thermos bottle for the storage of the liquid nitrogen. The dimensions are as follows; OT 53' dia x 78' high, IT 45' dia x 72' high.
The tank was built on multiple layers of high density foamglas insulation which transmits the load to an elevated pile cap foundation. A system of SS anchor straps allows the tank to move radially in response to temperature changes. An extensive series of thermally insulated stainless piping runs within the annular space, making the layout of the customers nozzles a critical component of the design phase.
The use of specialty steel for this tank was the one and only choice, as concrete or other competing materials do not hold up very well to negative 320 degree service temperatures!
Ammonia Tank - Dakota Gasification
Dakota Gasification/Burns & McDonnell
5/16" - 2"
Dakota Gasification’s Great Plains Synfuels plant is the only commercial-scale coal gasification facility in the United States that manufactures natural gas. Rated as the cleanest energy producing plant (based on stack emissions) in North Dakota, the synfuels plant uses anhydrous ammonia as the reagent for its groundbreaking scrubbing system.
Anhydrous ammonia is key to the plant’s processes and the range of co-products the synfuels operation produces. In 2012, Dakota Gas was ready to expand anhydrous ammonia storage in Beulah. The design, fabrication and construction of the 30,000 ton ammonia storage tank presented a number of challenges – including potentially frigid temperatures in the forbidding North Dakota winter. The vast size of the storage tank, pressure requirements, temperature requirements and aesthetic requirements all promised a challenging project.
Working with a skilled Engineer, Procure, Construct team, the tank contractor developed tank and foundation designs that would address the specific operational needs for the tank, the unique criteria for storing anhydrous ammonia, and the related environmental and safety concerns. The design process took several months and included dozens of drawings as the tank contractor, project engineers and EPC contractor worked together to finalize the design and construction plans.
The tank is built on a slab foundation, with a base heating system. The heating system prevents the soil under the foundation from freezing, and guards against damage to the slab from the extreme cold. In addition to the heating system, the tank contractor installed foam glass insulation between the tank bottom and the slab; this protects the slab from the very cold operating temperature of the tank itself.
The 170’ diameter single containment tank was designed and fabricated per API 620 Appendix R and API 625. The material is A-516 60 and A-516 70 carbon steel, with a 1/8” corrosion allowance. The tank weighs approximately 1000 tons empty; with 11 million gallons of product inside, it weighs in at nearly 93 million pounds.
In addition to the tank’s 685 tons of steel, an extensive insulation system was required to maintain the very cold -28 degrees Fahrenheit operating temperature. The insulation was installed on the tank’s exterior after the exterior coating system was applied. The specially designed wild lap roof was constructed, painted and insulated on the ground inside the tank and air raised into place. Once the roof was in place, the tank’s exterior insulation and the roof insulation were connected and sealed.
The single containment tank system includes a vapor recovery system and an earthen dike around the tank foundation to ensure that all potential vapor emissions and liquid leakage will be fully contained.
The result is a mammoth tank, capable of holding over 11 million gallons of anhydrous ammonia, that will safely serve the customer’s multi-product clean power system and the surrounding communities for decades to come.
Petroleum Terminal/Melones Terminal Project
Petroleum Terminal/Melones Oil Terminal, Inc.
Panama City, Panama
84,000,000 gallons in total 17 tanks
1/4 – 1”
Engineering Procurement Fabrication Construction (EPFC) Contractor was retained to design and construct a state-of-the-art fuel storage terminal on Melones Island, located approximately five miles west of Panama City, Panama near the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal. This new fuel storage terminal services the increasing needs of the shipping industry in the region. The remote location of the project and the harsh marine environment presented unique challenges that showcased the advantages of a single source solution for storage terminal facilities.
The scope of work included construction of 17 API-650 geodesic dome tanks capable of storing two million barrels of product (84 million gallons). The scope also included site civil work, foundations, piping, pumps, electrical, instrumentation, spill containment, and fire protection for the terminal. Additional requirements included construction of living quarters, mess hall, sewage plant, potable water cistern, and a power house that allows the island to be entirely self-sufficient.
The terminal design enables the operator to manage operations from the control room. The system accommodates transfer of product to or from four separate barges and to or from four individual tanks simultaneously without cross-contamination. The system also allows transfer of product from one tank to another, recirculation within a tank, and in-line product blending.
The EPFC Contractor utilized its own marine vessels to transport fabricated steel materials directly to Melones Island. The project utilized a process developed by the Contractor to protect the steel during ocean transit, improve field construction schedules, and to reduce cost. The EPFC Contractor’s experienced project team employed state-of-the-art erection, welding, inspection processes and equipment to construct this challenging project safely, on time, and with high quality.
1119 Appelt Tank Construction
Oiltanking Houston, LP
(6) 216’ and (4) 158’
1,716,000 and 9,240,000 gallons
5/16” to 1 1/8”
The scope of this project provided the design, supply and field erection for six (6) 216’-0 Dia x 60’-0 H and four (4) 158’-0 Dia x 60’-0 H Internal Floating Roof Tanks with Geodesic Dome Fixed Roofs for Oiltanking. The top windgirder was designed as a walkway around the full circumference of the tank as a benefit to the customer. The tanks were constructed in a phased approach that allowed the customer to place tans into service as remaining tanks were still being completed.
Point Thomson Project – Diesel Tank Modules
Point Thomson, AK
(4) 48’ –0” ; (1) 20’ -0”
(4) 48’ –0” ; (1) 12’ -0”
(4) 650,000 Each; (1) 17,000
(4) 129 Tons Each: (1) 15 Tons
Shell – (4) 0.399”; (1) 0.3125”
This project involved a total of five API 650 tanks field built on two modules that were set on separate barges and transported nearly 3,800 miles to their final location in the Northern Prudhoe Bay region of Alaska called Point Thomson about 60 miles east of Deadhorse. Complex, detailed planning and logistics were required to complete this project.
The picture shows a 706 ton module which includes a process building, two larger tanks and a smaller tank as it departs the Pacific Northwest module assembly yard in Washington state. The second module (545 ton) was barged in a similar fashion shortly thereafter.
The four large tanks are 48’ Ø x 48’ tall Appendix I column supported field erected cone roof tanks that store diesel and are large tanks to be transported after completion. The larger tanks were built in place at the module assembly yard on fabricated steel structural supports. The smaller 12’ Ø x 20’ tall Appendix J & F self-supported cone roof shop built methanol tank was shop fabricated and trucked to the module assembly yard for installation on one of the modules.
Once the modules were completed, they were moved about a hundred yards from the module assembly site onto separate barges for ocean transport through the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas to its Alaska North Slope destination for off-loading and final setting at the Point Thomson facility.
The design used high quality carbon steel (A516-70 normalized w/Charpy impacts of 30 ft-lbs @ -50 deg F) per API 650. It was a reasonable technical and economic choice as it provided a material that could withstand the harsh arctic climate, transportation and operational conditions. To accommodate these design conditions, a thickened bottom was utilized to provide and minimize the structural support needed for the tank to be installed, transported and operated on a structural grillage type module frame. Other design and engineering features included special welding procedures, an annular bottom plate, arctic white paint, additional nondestructive examination as well as rigorous material control activities.
(1) Propane and (3) IsoButane Spheres
Point Comfort, TX
52’ and 64’
576,928 and 1,100,000 gallons
1.56” and 1.091”
One high pressure propane sphere at 52’ diameter and three (3) isobutene spheres at 64’ diameter were designed and built to meet the strict requirements of ASME, Division II. The propane sphere has an unusually high design pressure of 316 psi, and the isobutene spheres of 100 psig required that all welds be 100% Ultrasonic Tested (UT) for quality.
Due to the high pressure, the propane sphere plates were designed to be very thick (the thickest plate was 1.56”) and required that the spheres be field Post Weld Heat Treated (PWHT) by holding the entire sphere at 1,195 degrees F for 2 hours.
These spheres used 3,049,000 pounds of steel plate and demonstrate the capability and flexibility of steel to store products at very high pressures making steel – the material of choice!
Natrium Processing Facility
Caiman Energy / Blue Racer Midstream
Marshall County, WV
(1) 81'-10 (3) 60'-6
1.416" to 1.915"
These (4) large Spheres were designed and built to the strict requirements of the ASME, Section VIII, Division 2 Standard to hold 110,600 BBLS of Propane, Butane and Natural Gas Liquid under extreme pressure.
The largest Sphere holds 50,000 BBLS of Propane at 250 psig in an 81'-10 sphere. The Sphere has an unusually high design pressure that requires that all welds be 100% Ultrasonic Tested(UT) for quality. Also due to the high pressure, the plates were designed to be very thick (the thickest plate was 1.918") and required that the Sphere be field Post Weld Heat Treated (PWHT) by holding the entire sphere at 1,195 degrees F for 2 hours. Before being placed into service, the Propane Sphere was then successfully hydro tested under pressure to 358 psig.
The three other spheres were all 60'-6 in diameter with the (2) Butane spheres designed for 110 psig and the Natural Gas Liquid sphere designed for 250 psig.
The Scope of Work for all of the spheres included the design of the foundation, as well as the design and installation of the support columns including their fire proofing, a full multi ring deluge fire protection spray system, a galvanized stairway and field paint of the finished product.
These Spheres used 4,150,000 pounds of steel plate and demonstrate the capability and flexibility of steel to store products at very high pressures making steel - the material of choice!
Hines Road 2.0 MG Elevated Storage Tank
City of Columbus
146' HWL; 160' OAH
66'dia col; 100' dia tank
0.1875" to 2.75"
This unique and beautiful 2,000,000 gallon elevated tank was constructed with an interior steel suspended ceiling. The area below the ceiling was insulated that provided a heated and controlled environment for the owner’s telemetry, sensing and sampling equipment. The tank was also designed and constructed to allow for the future installation of cellular communication equipment.
The tank was constructed adjacent to a twin 2,000,000 gallon elevated tank built 22 years earlier signifying the Owner’s preference for all welded steel tanks based on the successful performance of the existing tank.
The distinctive exterior paint scheme consists of circumferential bands of alternating colors that matches the existing tank.
This tank promotes and demonstrates the beauty, flexibility and aesthetics of steel designed structures.
1.5 MMG Elevated Water Tank
New Jersey American Water Co.
Egg Harbor Twsp, NJ
2.25 thru 0.25"
This 1,500,000 Gallon Fluted Column style elevated water storage tank was constructed on a unique Design - Build basis between 2010 and 2013.
The Tank Contractor was responsible for not only designing the tank, but hiring a consulting engineering firm partner to establish the operating parameters, determine the FAA and local site requirements, and then obtain State and Township permits. Once the year long design and permitting phase was completed, on site construction began.
Due to the timing of the permits, the 950,000 pounds of carbon steel was erected during the coastal winter weather demonstrating the construct ability of steel in all types of weather. Painting of the tank with high performance coatings then took place in the Spring of 2013, including a full field blast and paint of the interior wet area.
The lower column of the tank included a steel condensate ceiling, heaters, and an application of spray-on insulation to ensure a warm working environment for the owner's personnel.
Dublin Road 0.5 MG Water Tower
City of Dublin
207' HWL, 212' Total
10' diam x 130' long pedestal
1-20/32" Thickest plate ring
Looking like a giant golf ball on a tee, and painting it that way, was some original thoughts by the surrounding community of this 212' tall Pedesphere elevated water storage tank. With two big golf tournaments promoting the community last year, the owner instead decided that it would best be painted with the city’s ubiquitous shamrock logo. The exterior fluorourethane does give this towering structure a nice golf-ball like shine.
This tower's extreme height yields easy visibility throughout the whole city and also makes this five hundred thousand gallon Pedesphere look small, despite its 55'-6" diameter, over 235 tons of steel, and nearly 35,000 square feet of painted steel surface. The interior wet portion of the tank had a shop holding primer so that it could then be 100% field blasted and painted, plus due to the site location, the exterior was painted under full containment. Our field erection and painting crews got their exercise by scaling this tall tank's nearly 20-story height, but claim they enjoyed the views of the two neighboring golf courses this tower sits between. Originality and versatillity were well met in this project: non-freeze valving, a complete passive mixing system, cathodic protection system, a very elaborate electrical, antennae, and controls system; and all this intricate work inside the Pedesphere is sure to serve the community well for many years to come.
Elevated Water Storage Tank
City of Lima
48' diam reinforced concrete shaft
1-1/16" 1st cone ring
This owner's branding effort is sealed across the city's new water tower. At over 130 feet in the air, it shouts, “Real American Strength” to about 30,000 travelers a day on Interstate 75. How strong you ask? This colossal 1.5 million gallon Composite Elevated Water Storage Tank, (reinforced concrete pedestal supporting a welded steel tank) which all in total weighs more than 13 million pounds, promotes more than 327 tons of steel in the tank, shaft, foundation, and miscellaneous steel items like ladders, piping, and conduits. The entire 40,000 square feet of zinc-primed steel surface has two finish coats of epoxy on the interior and is finished off with fluorourethane as the final exterior coat. Two 12" diameter and one 16" diameter Stainless Steel inlet/outlet/overflow pipes take care of the vertical plumbing while the inside base of the shaft is used for the remaining valvework and controls. When asked to respond to this project winning a local award, the Mayor David Bergerthe said, "The base of the new tower is supporting all together nearly 7,000 tons of water and steel which is as fine a metaphor as any to represent the culture and character of our community."
Water System Improvements - Phase X
North Lenoir Water Corporation
Some folks in this community believe in the statement that "Nearly half of all North Carolinians live in rural areas," and they are proud to secure the contract with us to replace an older, smaller water tower with this new 1.5 million gallon Composite Elevated Water Storage Tank. They view themselves as a unique, active community with sustainable growth and they wanted their name bold and prominent for travelers landing at their regional airport just 3 miles from this tank. They also wanted this highly aesthetic water tower to be sustainable and loaded it with the newest technologies in water system controls.
This colossal structure promotes a winning combination of more than 317 tons of steel in the tank, shaft, foundation, and miscellaneous steel items like ladders, piping, and conduits. The 40,000 square feet of painted steel surface has three coats of epoxy on the interior and is finished off with fluorourethane as the final exterior coat. An elaborate galvanized stair, platform, and railing system allows authorized personnel to walk (not climb) from the ground floor up to the top of the shaft without interfering with the two 12" diameter and two 16" diameter Stainless Steel inlet/outlet/overflow pipes. Many times, the old tank is kept in service until the new tank is operational, but this new tank was on the same site, so once the old tank was removed there was a shorter window than normal to get the new tank built and in service. Planning for the heavy weight of this large tank structure in the challenging soil conditions of this site required some hefty deep-foundation system design and considerations. Many thousands of design and construction man-hours were spent inside the short window of completion to successfully deliver this astounding tank and this community is proud of their promotional product.
Longfellow Recycled Tank & Pipeline
Eastern Municipal Water District
3/16", 1/4", 5/16", 3/8", 9/16", & 11/16"
This reservoir tank was designed to improve the level of service to existing and future customers. This tank will improve conveyance and storage capacities to meet summer demands.
Concrete and steel were both considered as products to build this tank. Due to the proximity of the San Jacinto fault, the customer ultimately decided to go with steel construction due to their lengthy history with steel tanks and their ability to handle seismic loads.
The customer selected "Buffalo Brown" as the tank's external color. By choosing this color, the tank is able to blend into the natural surroundings nicely.
With the addition of this tank into the owners system, it not only improves the capacities of their water system, but also gives the town of Winchester a new landmark.
Bridge District Water Storage Facility and Park Project
The City of West Sacramento
West Sacramento, CA
3.3 MG Tank
3/16" ,1/4", 5/16", 3/8", 7/16", 9/16", & 11/16"
This 3.3 MG was planned and designed to meet the needs of the expanding developments around the "Bridge District" of West Sacramento, CA.
This tank is designed to be a green structure with the storage tank designed to accommodate future solar power system installation, including 1,104 solar panel brackets installed during initial tank construction.
The tank was located in a park zone of a new residential development resulted in an architecturally unique specialty lighting scheme developed from community input with colors to match those used in the new subdivision.
Steel was selected as the material of choice even with the following extra cost factors included:
1. Full containment during blasting and painting operations due to proximity of residential neighborhood.
2. The exterior of the tank was coated with High Performance Coatings (Urethane Gloss Enamel) to assist with the specialty lighting scheme.
There were 500 tons of steel used in the tank and the foundation. The tank was designed per section 14 of AWWA. The owner required 1/8" corrosion allowance due to the location of the tank and the marine environment. The roof plate was designed at a thickness of 5/16", which increased the size of the roof structure and supports.
The combination of architectural features, painting scheme and nighttime lighting have, created a new local landmark.
Non-Potable Water NR 1031 & 1032 Booster Station
Yucaipa Valley Water District
2.0 MG Tank
Yucaipa Valley Water District had determined that they needed to eliminate the amount of effluent discharged into the local San Timoteo Creek. The district then aggressively pursued the procurement of this Recycled Water Project.
The District had evaluated the use of concrete tanks for this facility, but due to the challenging high seismic area, the potential for leaks, and the higher cost the District decided to go with steel construction.
This project consisted of (2) 1.0 MG tanks, foundations, and pump station which included 330 tons of carbon steel that will be used to process and store the non potable water. This water will then be distributed throughout the district as required.
With the flexibility of steel, the owner was able to effectively design the tank for high seismic loads and coat the tank a color that helped the facility blend into the native surroundings.
Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Main Storage Reservoir
Standing Rock Rural Water System
Standing Rock Indian Reservation, SD
26' HWL, 30' Shell
31/32" Thick on 1st Shell
On the Standing Rock Indian Reservation on the North Dakota-South Dakota border is where you'll find this five-million gallon ground-level water storage tank shining brightly in the summer and snow-covered in the winter. This tank had to be built during 'construction season' which only gave nearly 7 months of time to go from a grassy open flat-land to now the largest water storage tank for many, many miles. With this being in the flat open area with nothing around to slow the wind, high wind pressures were experienced and had to be overcome with specialized engineering and construction practices.
This quick-build construction feat used over 400 tons of steel in the tank and over 20 tons of structural, reinforcing, and miscellaneous steel for the ladders, piping, and foundations. This huge tank touts 34,000 square feet of painted steel surface and is gracefully topped with one of the largest self-supporting aluminum geodesic domes produced. This project demanded the right mix of products including thousands of pounds of 20" stainless steel piping, valves, and a uniquely designed stainless steel passive mixing system; the aluminum roof connection point to the steel sidewall and wind girders; and the galvanized stairs, treads, and railing. Thousands of design and construction man-hours were spent inside of this very short window of completion to successfully deliver this astounding tank on this site.
Park Street Water Storage Facility
City of Carbondale, IL
53' HWL, 63' Total
1-3/32" Thick on 1st Shell
Nestled less than a mile from Southern Illinois University and built within a park-like setting across the street from some nice apartment condos is this large three-million gallon ground-level water storage tank. This tank proudly displays a smooth curved ellipsoidal roof without rafters, which is difficult to design/construct and uncommon for this size of tank.
Roof stairs and handrail top off the exterior of this shiny new tank while a passive mixing system adorns the massively open interior. The extensive engineering and design led to over 383 tons of steel in the tank and roof plus structural, reinforcing, and miscellaneous steel for the SCH 80 piping, ladders, handrail, and foundations. This enormous tank used zinc-rich primer on its 38,000 square feet of painted steel surface. The finished product is something the neighbors are proud of and appreciate the thousands of man-hours spent to produce this sleek and useful asset.
University of Texas High Performance Computing Facility
The University of Texas
January 20, 2013
The University of Texas Advanced Computer Center has the "Power of Stampede". Stampede is one of the most powerful Supercomputers in the world. It complements scientific theory and observation by modeling and analyzing anything that is too large, too small, too expensive, or too dangerous to test in the laboratory. Keeping this Supercomputer Cool is a must!
This welded steel Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Tank is a strategic part of this new facility. Besides insuring the needed cooling capacity is available, the tank will actually pay for itself through energy cost savings with load shifting. The tank stores reserves of chilled water that is more economically produced during off-peak energy times.
The University is a repeat customer having great success with existing welded steel TES tanks at several other campus locations that cool classrooms. In this case the end user is a
This welded steel tank has internal diffusers for stratification of the water and an architectural painted insulation jacket. The design met all of the Owner requirements including meeting the construction schedule even on a tight site, 100% leak tight storage, aesthetically pleasing, low capital cost, within budget, and low maintenance.
A world class computer facility performs world class research, and relies on this welded steel TES tank to keep the supercomputer cool. This tank promotes and demonstrates steel's advantages and once again is the owner's choice of material to be used.
E & J Gallo Eastside Winery Expansion
E & J Gallo
39' - 1" Diameter
5.6 MG of Capacity
Design, fabricate and field erect (16) 350,000 gallon light gage stainless steel wine storage tanks with dimple style refrigeration jackets.
Due to the short construction schedule required to meet project requirements, the tanks were erected in the field using panelized construction. Providing over 5,600,000 gallons of additional storage capacity, these 16 tanks required over 20,000 parts and pieces totaling more than 1,040,000 pounds of stainless steel.
To meet the rigid customer specifications, achieve the performance requirements on the refrigeration jackets, and accommodate the butterfly foundations, this project required our company to develop new fabrication, erection and welding techniques
Nucor Steel Direct Reduced Iron Plant "6 DRI Product Silos"
DRI Silos / Nucor Steel
42,000 metric tonnes
The design, fabrication and erection of six special storage tanks (“DRI Product Silos”) for Nucor Steel’s new Direct Reduced Iron Plant in Convent, Louisiana, which are the highest capacity all steel storage silos ever constructed on a worldwide basis at a Nucor Steel facility, was completed in April 2013. The 2,500,000 tons-per-year iron-making facility will use direct reduction technology to convert natural gas and iron ore pellets into high quality direct reduced iron ("DRI") used by Nucor's steel mills.
These silos store DRI. DRI is a dry-bulk product—semi-processed iron ore—that looks a lot like BBs for a pellet gun. The density of the DRI pellets is approximately 100 PCF.
Each steel silo has a diameter of sixty-six feet, a vertical height of ninety-two feet, a total structural weight of 1,125,000 pounds and holds a capacity of 7,000 metric tons of material. A total of fifty welding personnel were on site for seven months to complete the six silos.
The storage tanks are part of the first phase of what could become a $3.4 billion complex, employing as many as 1,250 people and will producing 2.5 million tons of Direct Reduced Iron annually. Production at the Convent, Louisiana facility began December 24, 2013.
Odfjell Terminals N. Charleston
Odfjell Terminals/The Roberts Company
North Charleston, SC
(3) 67'6"; (2) 67'6"; (2) 67'6";(2) 24'
(3) 80'; (2) 65'; (2) 46'6"; (2) 20'
(3) 2.5m; (2) 1.7m; (2) 855k; (2) 56k = total 12,722,000 gallons
(3) 305; (2) 212; (2) 175; (2) 19 = total 1727 tons
5/16" to 1 1/2"
In a strategic location along the banks of the Cooper River, in Charleston, SC, Odjfell Terminals purchased an existing but defunct terminal site and adjacent land. Odfjell planned a premier distribution terminal to serve the bulk liquid chemical and vegetable oil industries in the south-eastern US. Plans included floating roofs and pressurized tanks with marine, rail and tank truck accessibility, automatic nitrogen compensation systems and an advanced vapor return system. The tank contractor worked with the general contractor and the design team to develop tank solutions for the brownfield terminal project as well as rehabilitation of two existing tanks.
The brownfield terminal project included nine new storage tanks, ranging in size from 20’ to 80’ feet in diameter, and 56,000 to 2,500,000 million gallons in volume. The customer required that the tanks provide maximum flexibility in terms of product storage. This presented some important design challenges, including allowing for high specific gravity, high corrosion allowances and 2.5 pounds of internal pressure in each tank.
The coastal location of the site demanded that the tanks have high wind velocity tolerance, but the customer specified that the tanks should not have wind girders. The site’s location in a seismic zone required specific foundation designs to prevent liquefaction. The customer also required maximum accessibility to each tank with a minimal number of staircases; this required extensive platforming that also had to allow for seismic activity.
The tank contractor designed, fabricated and constructed the nine new tanks to perform to the customer’s specific standards and to accommodate the site’s unique conditions.
To permit the highest corrosion allowances and allow for maximum flexibility in the tanks’ contents, the nine new tanks were constructed out of carbon steel. In-house fabrication, including all blasting, cutting and rolling, helped ensure the plates met the stringent corrosion allowance standards when they arrived on site for construction.
In order to meet the required wind velocity tolerance - with no wind girders, as specified by the customer - the tanks were designed with very heavy shells. The tank contractor also fabricated and constructed the pressed dome roofs, designed to meet the 2.5 lbs pressure requirement.
The tank’s’ high specific gravity requirement and the anticipated product load, along with the seismic load, necessitated extensive anchor bolt systems. The project’s engineering team designed massive foundations to accommodate the heavy foundation loads.
The foundation designs addressed the foundation loads as well the the potential for liquefaction, predicted settlements and lateral deflection. The foundations included extensive piling at various depths to ensure that the piling systems are fully embedded and provide maximum stability for the tanks they support.
To meet the customer’s requirement for access to the tanks, the tank contractor designed, fabricated and installed an extensive platforming for the nine new tanks. This system of platforms and access points allows safe, secure and efficient access to all the tanks, with a minimal number of stairways. The tank contractor worked closely with the engineering team to ensure that the platform system accommodates a three inch lateral deflection in the event of seismic activity.
The completed Odfjell Terminal is a unique achievement in the tank industry. The project successfully transformed an abandoned riverfront site into a state of the art, environmentally responsible terminal facility that will serve the Port of Charleston, the U.S., and the world economy for decades to come.
San Bernardino Valley College Central Plant
San Bernardino Community College District
San Bernardino, CA
March 22, 2013
0.572" to 0.250"
This one of a kind, highly visible Standpipe serves as both a centerpiece of a community college and as a cost effective thermal energy storage tank. The tank's long-term energy cost savings will ultimately pay for the tank itself.
This beautiful Standpipe sits on a prominent spot adjacent to the football field/track to serve as a focal point for the college campus. The 72'-9" tall standpipe sports the San Bernardino Valley College
"V-ball" logo in two places near the top of the tank.
The design and construction of this tank is likely one of the most robust seismic designs of an AWWA D100 tank as it was built just a few hundred yards away from an active fault line. This created some unique design challenges including: tank anchorage, shell thickness, and freeboard height to meet the stringent seismic design requirements.
Aesthetically, the Owner wanted this tank to tie in well with the nearby cooling towers and chose a silver, metallic looking finish for the exterior of the aluminum jacketing. To make the standpipe stand out as a centerpiece for the campus, it was outfitted with two (2) 23'-6" diameter thin gauge steel plates painted to match the "V-ball" logo the campus identifies with. Each of these logos were attached to the tank with a series of eighteen (18) clips and brackets that are mounted to the tank shell. The finished product can be seen from all over the campus.
This tank proudly celebrates the capabilities of an all steel design in a highly visible location consistently occupied by thousands of students and is worthy of consideration for Tank of the Year honors.
City of Fall River Water Tank Replacement
Watuppa Water Board, Fall River, Massachusetts
Fall River, MA
.838" to .3125"
In the heart of a Fall River, MA, neighborhood stands a new 1,116,200 gallon standpipe. The 50’ x 76’ AWWA D-100 Chicago Street Water Tank replaced an aging, water tank with lead coatings and was constructed right in the middle of a quiet residential area. The tank’s sensitive location created several challenges related to construction, and its proximity to Mount Hope Bay demanded high wind tolerance and exceptionally durable coatings.
The water board worked with a local engineer to develop a plan for safe demolition of the existing tank and a local subcontractor provided site work and the foundation for the new tank. The tank contractor worked with the engineer to address the community’s concerns about construction traffic, equipment, noise, environmental issues and overall safety.
The construction plan included careful scheduling and arrangements for materials delivery and lay down, and strategic placement of a large crane for setting the tank’s Knuckle Umbrella Roof in place. The tank contractor worked with an expert paint contractor to ensure that the surrounding homes and property would not be damaged in the process of applying the exterior paint to the tank.
Because of the location near Mount Hope Bay, the tank was designed to withstand wind speeds of up to 150 miles per hour, and features thicker steel in the tank’s shell, a wind girder about 2/3 of the way up the tank, and an extensive system of anchor chairs. The tank contractor fabricated and installed a full 360 degree handrail as well as safety climbs on the tank. A mixing system installed in the tank ensures that the water is properly aerated and is kept in motion to prevent freezing.
The coating system on the tank is key to the tank’s appearance and to its long term performance and value. A three-coat potable water-safe zinc epoxy primer was applied to the tank’s interior for long-term performance. The exterior received a four-coat, 20 year high performance paint system, especially designed for long-term gloss and recommended for coastal locations. The tank’s knuckle umbrella roof design minimizes potential corrosion points, contributing to the performance of the coatings system and supporting a lower total cost of ownership for the tank.
To protect the surrounding residential area, the painting contractor installed an extensive containment system. Brackets were welded to the top of the tank, with a system of cables running from the top to the bottom of the tank. Specially designed fabric tarps were hung from the cable system to enclose the entire tank during sand blasting and painting. The containment system could be raised during blasting and painting activity, and lowered at night to minimize the risk of wind damage to the system or to surrounding homes.
The end result is a beautiful welded steel water storage tank. The Chicago Street Water Tank is the highest landmark in the surrounding area, and it will serve the community safely and economically for decades to come.
ASME Section VIII Div. I Vertical Storage Tank on Skirt
Acid Storage Tank
July 29, 2013
Vertical Ht. 58’ -0”
15’-0” ID w/ 190” Dia. Base Ring
85 Tons / 170,000 Lbs
Shell at 1.5” Thick
Vessel described is an ASME Section VIII Div. I design. It is used for acid storage. Material of construction is SA-516-70 low residual material (domestic). Project included full set of ladders and platforms which were hot dipped galvanized (not shown in photographs). The support skirt received multi-layer fireproof coating in our shop prior to shipping. Vessel was subject to PWHT. NDE included Full RT inspection before and after PWHT, and dry and wet MT. The vessel was grit blast cleaned per SSPC-SP10, and painted per customer specifications. From approval drawing to completion required approximately 28 weeks. Vessel was delivered on time and without incident.
(4) Aqueous Ammonia Storage Tanks
Wahlco, Inc. for Gen On Energy
New Florence, PA
67,000 (x4) = total 268,000 gallons
40 (x4) = total 160 tons
These four carbon steel pressure vessels store ammonia for use in a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Emissions-Control System, which our customer furnished for installation at a coal-fired electric generating station. The vessels were designed, fabricated and stamped in accordance with ASME Section VIII, Division 1 Code. Each vessel had a design pressure of 30 psig, and a design temperature of 125 degrees Fahrenheit. A corrosion allowance of 1/16" was required.
The project also included galvanized steel platforms on top of each tank, along with an intricate interconnecting walkway system and stairs to grade.
11’ x 13’ x 197’ Demethanizer and Cold Separator
15’ -9” x 197’-0”
11’ -0” x 13’ -0”
304 Stainless: 1.43” ; SA 537 – Class 2: 3.12”
The dual purpose Demethanizer/Cold Separator, standing nearly 198’, and weighing in at just over 261 tons, represents manufacturing at its finest. Manufactured for cryogenic service, the upper vessel is 155’ fabricated from 304 stainless steel, in thicknesses up to 1.43”, and designed for 350 PSI and -200°F. The intermediate cone transforms the internal diameter of the vessel from 156” to 108” in just six feet of length. Incorporated are six manways and 27 nozzles ranging from 1.5” to 24”. Attached to the base of this already monumental vessel, is a 114” internal diameter, 24’ Cold Separator. Designed for pressure of 1100 PSI and -75°F, it is fabricated from 3.12” ASME 537 CL2 carbon steel and heat treated at 1050°F for 3 hours.
(4) 32,000 Gallon Wine Storage Tanks
12' - 1" Diameter
10 & 12 Gauge
These 35,000 gallon tanks were planned and designed to be included in the Eastside Winery Expansion Project.
These tanks were design to handle the increased production of the white wine variety.
Tanks were designed with light gauge stainless steel utilizing the top down erection method in the vertical position.
Shop Fabrication was considered due to the fact that the site was close and the freight to ship was less than field labor costs.
The tanks were designed for high seismic loads per the California Building Code which made it challenging when using gauge material. There were numerous supports added to the tank so that the tanks would be able to handle the seismic loads.
Portable Asphalt Rubber Blending Plant
7’ -4” (Reaction Tank)
5,200 (Reaction Tank)
This trailer is a 15 tons per hour portable asphalt rubber blending plant designed to take processed crumb rubber and blend it with super-heated liquid asphalt. The processed crumb rubber comes from the millions of used tires that are replaced with new tires on our automobiles and other vehicles. After the blending is complete, the liquid asphalt with melted crumb rubber is metered into a Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) facility. The liquid is blended with heated stone at the HMA facility to make the asphalt that is used on our roads. When specified and in operation, there are approximately 2,000 used tires for every mile of asphalt road paved. The system includes a 2.0 MM Btu Hot Oil Heater, Heat Exchanger, Crumb Rubber Hopper with Feed Augers, Blending Tank with 75 HP Turbine Mixer, 5000 Gallon Coiled 2 Compartment Reaction Tank with Mixing Auger, two Process Pumps, Metering Skid, Control Room, Plant Controls, and all of the interconnecting process plumbing. All of the equipment is mounted on a 45’ long trailer.
Dorena Lake Power Project
Dorena Lake, OR
Product is described as a "Scroll Case". The primary function of this particular section of the penstock project is to create a cyclonic action that turns the power generator's turbine that sits atop the scroll case. The turbine "RPM's" are regulated by the amount of water allowed to flow into the scroll case which is controlled by a series of gate valves installed in the primary penstock sections.
Influent Equalization Reservoir No. 1; Roof Removal and Walkway Installation
Desert Water Agency
Palm Springs, CA
1/4", 3/8", & 1/2"
Desert Water Agency processes secondary effluent from the Palm Springs Waste Water Treatment Plant into recycled effluent water that is used at all the public golf courses in Palm Springs.
During normal operations, the influent reservoirs collect several inches of sediment on the reservoir floors. This can create turbidity spikes requiring more chemical dosage during the filtration process, and can clog the filters much faster than normal, preventing the Agency from producing the recycled effluent water for its customers. Influent Reservoir No. 1 was not designed for annual floor cleaning.
The Agency had considered demolishing their existing steel reservoir and replacing with concrete reservoir. Once they evaluated the cost they decided to save their existing steel reservoir and remove the roof to install a new cleaning system that will save water, reduce the amount of chemical dosing, and get the reclaimed water out to the end user in a timely fashion.
The walkway's and handrail were fabricated complete in our fabrication facility with galvanized structural steel and anodized aluminum handrail. There was a total of 800 feet of aluminum pipe that was welded together and anodized. The Walkway's were then delivered and installed over the existing tank to allow for access for the water cannon cleaning system.
Product Description: Influent Pump Station at Dallas Central WWTP
Owner: City of Dallas, TX
Location of Product: Dallas, TX
Date of Completion: October 2013
Overall Height/Length: N/A
Diameter: 6’ -3” and 5’ -3”
Steel Tonnage Used: 285
Product Description and Special Features:
Our company supplied the steel pipe for the Central Wastewater Treatment Plant Influent Pump Station located in Dallas,Texas. This included piping starting at six new pumps passing through two separate vaults and tieing into existing forced mains. This included over 1400 feet of 86", 72", 48" and 36" pipe.
The tee located in the upper right corner is a 72" tee with 72" outlet on one side and a 62" outlet on the other side. The crotch plates are 1 3/4" thick and 1 1/2" thick.
This piping was coated with 35 mils of polyurethane and 1" of cement was applied over the top of the polyurethane. Pipe was lined with a modified polyamine ceramic epoxy.
Product Description: Biological Nutrient Removal Treatment Plant
Owner: City of Modesto, CA
Location of Product: Modesto, CA
Date of Completion: 2013
Overall Height: N/A
Overall Length: N/A
Steel Tonnage Used: N/A
Steel Thickness: N/A
4" through 54" fabricated steel pipe and fittings with cement mortar lining and coating and 3" through 48" fabricated stainless steel pipe and fittings to provide a complete piping package for a brand new $ 120,000,000 wastewater treatment plant.
The plant is designed to remove any biological nutrients that would cause unwanted aquatic plant growth that could harm the riparian habitat. The effluent will be discharged into the Stanislaus River for eventual agricultural use.
The jobsite is very congested due to the accelerated schedule and deliveries must be timely and the fabrication must be accurate in order to keep the project on track.
Product Description: Choloma Hydroelectric Project
Owner: Grupo Secacao
Location of Product: Senahu, Guatemala
Date of Completion: 2013
Overall Height/Length: 2,690 M
Diameter: 42”, 38”
Steel Tonnage Used: 645
To generate power in the rain forest of Guatemala, 2,690 meters of 42” and 38” pipe was fabricated in the United States and transported by sea to Guatemala. Epoxy lining and polyurethane coating for the steel pipe were chosen not only for their service life, but also for their durability needed for the field conditions they would endure during the transport and installation. Pipe was telescoped with four 38” diameter joints inside four 42” diameter joints that were bundled and placed in shipping containers for delivery to site.
Very unique installation processes had to be used due to the geography and primitive environment, the change in elevation over the 2,690 meters was close to 600 meters. A unique method of installation minimized the disturbance to the rain forest. Pipe was transported to the trench with a cable crane, eliminating the use of forklifts and cranes. Pipe was installed and welded by certified welders and proper X-Ray inspection was performed in each joint. Thermofusion sleeves were provided for each joint to protect the coating and proper epoxy patching was done for the inside lining.
Construction work created much needed employment for over 400 local workers for a year, injecting much needed cash into the severely depressed local economy. Ten permanent full time jobs were also created. The completed project not only helps the local residents but provides reduction in greenhouse gas production by offsetting burning of coal and petroleum products, two major sources of electricity in Guatemala.
Product Description: Vogtle Electric Generating Plant
Owner: Georgia Power Co.
Location of Product: Waynesboro, GA
Overall Height/Length: 2 Sections of 227’ Each (454 Linear Feet Total)
Steel Tonnage Used: 227
Steel Thickness: ¾”
The construction of two new reactors at the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant in Georgia represents a significant milestone in the energy industry: The project is the first contract awarded for new nuclear builds in nearly 30 years. Like other nuclear plants, water is an essential component to keeping the reactors cool. Underground, a network of 12,000 feet of pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP) circulates water from the units’ power-generating turbines to a cooling tower and back again. Above-ground water circulates through each turbine through 227 feet of ¾-inch-thick C-200 steel pipe made with ASTM A672 Grade 70 steel.
Where the lines emerge from under the two turbine buildings, they connect to a network of 120-inch-diameter steel pipes via a below-grade concrete pipe flange and an above-ground steel pipe flange. This connection requires four vertical risers to connect the PCCP below-grade material that enters the turbine building’s 6-foot-thick floor to the above-ground steel pipe. These four vertical risers each consist of two 120” flange x 108” flange concentric reducers, which are only 16” long from face of flange to face of flange. There are then two lines that include two 10-degree elbows and two 90-degree elbows each with 72” stanchions. One of the 10-degree elbows in each line also has a support attached to it in the shop. Finally, the project also included two 140-degree 120” elbows.
The manufacturer had to assemble and test the 90-degree elbows and stanchions at the plant prior to shipment to ensure proper fit; the elbows were shipped loose to the project for assembly on site. As the stanchions are a critical component for both structural integrity and alignment, a detailed 3-D model was created of the stanchions and bends prior to manufacturing. Using this model, the manufacturer was able to digitally fit-up the 90-degree bend to the stanchion and implement any necessary design changes to the pieces prior to fabrication.
Due to the high-security nature of the project, the manufacturer underwent stricter document control procedures compared with traditional projects, such as tracking each individual weld including the individual welder.
The manufacturer’s involvement early in the design stages and continuing through installation has been essential to bringing clarity to the pipeline of the massive nuclear project. The company’s engineers worked closely with the project’s owners and the rest of the project team to design the optimal layout for the system to ensure as much flexibility during the installation as possible.
Product Description: Central Regional Wastewater Plant Pump Station
Owner: Trinity River Authority
Location of Product: Dallas, TX
Date of Completion: August 2013
Overall Height/Length: 1300 Linear Feet
Steel Tonnage Used: Various
Steel Thickness: Various
With over 1,300 linear ft. of various-sized steel pipe needing to be lined, the Central Regional Wastewater System in Dallas, Texas, and the pipe fabricator involved, decided to apply an innovative “green” ceramic epoxy lining to help extend its life-cycle. In the past, other 100% solids epoxy lining systems had been specified by the owner, but the performance criteria of this new lining – Series 431 Perma-Shield PL, designed specifically for steel pipe in wastewater environments – exceeded that of the specified material.
Perma-Shield PL, a coal-tar free, modified polyamine ceramic epoxy with low pigment volume concentration (PVC) and 100% solids formulation, was specified. This lining, when tested using rapid evaluation of coatings and linings in wastewater environments, or ASTM G210-13 Standard Practice for Operating the Severe Wastewater Analysis Testing Apparatus, remained in the “excellent” range after 28 days exposure – displaying very little change in regards to blistering, cracking, and rusting. Identifiable by its “Sewer Pipe Green” shade, the progressive lining also meets or exceeds many other standard performance criteria designated as mandatory by its manufacturer.
The steel pipe for the project was fabricated and coated at the pipe fibrication facility before being shipped to Dallas. Representatives of the lining’s manufacturer from the corresponding states worked together to lead towards a quality end result. Once the engineer had a quality specification in Texas, the team worked with the applicator at the fabrication facility to ensure surface preparation and application went smoothly. The fabricator upholds excellent internal quality standards and all necessary application steps were completed without issue.
The interior of all pipes were prepared according to SSPC-SP5/NACE 1 White Metal Blast Cleaning with a minimum 3.0 mil profile. With majority of the pipe being as large as it was, the applicator stood inside the pipe to spray-apply Series 431 Perma-Shield PL at 40-50 mils dry film thickness (DFT). The lining was applied to the smaller steel pipe with a rotary spray gun, using the same plural component equipment as the other pieces. Because the lining applies in thicker coats, application was quick and required little touch-up afterwards.
The lined steel pipe was delivered to the jobsite in Dallas completely coated and ready for installation. Series 431 Perma-Shield PL can be stored above-ground for approx. 3 years without issue, so it allows for work-related and weather-related delays. All parties involved saw the lining after application, in the shop and in the field, and were truly impressed with the look and consistency of the end result. The owner enjoyed the quality of the lining enough that they have approved using Series 431 for another project connected to the wastewater plant. Installation was completed in August 2013.
The Central Regional Wastewater System serves twenty-one contracting parties and approx. 1.2 million people in the Dallas/Fort Worth area. It is capable of providing complete treatment for monthly average flows of 162 million gallons per day while removing 99 percent of conventional pollutants from raw wastewater.
Product Description: McCook Main Tunnel Liner
Owner: U.S. Army Corp of Engineers
Location of Product: Chicago, IL
Overall Height/Length: 300’ Height Underground, 480’ Long
Diameter: 33’ ID
Steel Tonnage Used: 1,650
Steel Thickness: .750” – 1.00”
Our company performed all subassembly and assembly welding onsite for the McCook Reservoir Main Tunnel. This tunnel section will connect the McCook Reservoir to Chicago’s Deep Tunnel system, which is aimed at improving water quality in area rivers and Lake Michigan and reducing flood risk for Chicago and suburban communities. The project is a key component of Chicago’s Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP). Through TARP, the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago collects and diverts combined sewer overflows and floodwaters throughout metropolitan Chicago to temporary holding reservoirs before treatment.
The bifurcated steel tunnel system is about 480 ft. long and 33 ft in diameter. The purpose of the steel bifurcated section is to convert the 33’ diameter circular liner to two, 14’x29.5’ rectangular shapes to allow for a set of six wheeled gate valves to control flow.
The challenging aspects of this work are the material type, large size/weight of the steel liner and assembly/fitting of the constantly changing steel liner geometry. Our scope included the subassembly, fitting and welding of all steel sections of the tunnel liner and assistance in the installation. All seam welds on this project are full penetration butt welds, ultrasonically inspected, on high tensile steel which required preheat and special consumables. Assembly of the liner also has required special layout, as liner shapes continue to change throughout the project. Most subassembly has taken place onsite on the surface within a shelter. The pieces are then flown (lowered by crane) down a 90’ diameter shaft to the installation level 300’ below, where installation, fitting, and welding of the sub assembled sections is completed.
Product name: Nova Plate 325
Product available: 2013
Industrial tanks and pressure vessels may operate at elevated temperatures and under pressure. These tanks may contain "raw" liquids extracted under pressure or process solutions that are pressurized to simplify conveyance.
In the past, one of the only ways to protect the interiors of these tanks and pressure vessels was to apply a lining - in multiple coats - and bake these linings at high temperatures until they were fully cured.
Steel pipe fabricators are no stranger to the application of high-performance protective coatings and linings to the interior and exterior of their pipe and fittings, but the linings typically used has performance characteristics that promise little protection against H2S and other sewer gases for wastewater exposures. Series 431 Perma-Shield PL (Pipe Liner), an innovative, ceramic-modified polyamine epoxy, has been formulated to compete against other protective linings and surpass performance characteristics necessary for protection of steel sewer pipe.
Series 431 Perma-Shield PL, identifiable by its easy-to-clean “Sewer Pipe Green” color, is a 100% volume solids technology with extremely low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)–all important factors for shop applications. Series 431 is created for carbon steel pipe performance in severe wastewater with 20% by weight high-quality ceramic microspheres for abrasion resistance, and a coal-tar free, resin-rich formulation with low pigment volume concentration. Formulated to resist the three evils for coatings in domestic sewerage systems – permeation to sewer gases, abrasion, and chemical attack – this coating out-performs all other protective linings for steel pipe and extends the service life for sewer pipe.
Using ASTM G210-13 The Standard Practice for Operating the Severe Wastewater Analysis Testing Apparatus – Series 431 showed “excellent” EIS Coating Impedance, much better results than other protective linings tested for sewer resistance. Its abrasion-resistance has been tested in several ways. In accordance to ASTM D 4060, this lining showed less than 76 mg loss. When tested using the British Standard rocking abrasion test, BS EN 598:2007, the lining showed less than 0.6 mils abrasion loss. And, Series 431 has been rigorously tested for chemical exposures.
Pipe fabricators have successfully applied the “green” epoxy lining to their steel pipe for several projects using plural component (PC) equipment. Once the product is applied, the lined pipe can be delivered to the jobsite ready for installation and, if necessary, can be touched-up in the field with conveniently packaged touch-up kits. With an above-ground storage life of approx. 3 years, the steel pipe can be left in the field during work- or weather-related delays, which was not possible before this formulation.
Once installed, the sewer pipe can be cleaned of accumulated material with high-velocity jet sewer cleaning equipment – a novel product attribute that supports the tenets of asset management. Adding these performance and maintenance features allows Series 431 Perma-Shield PL to be confidently specified for steel sewer pipe projects where performance matters.
Product name: Gen Set Spill Containment Box
Product available: 2013
The solution to confining fuel delivery spills in limited space – Gen Set Spill Containment Box
This new design incorporates several unique design features and owner benefits:
• Space Saving Design
• Allows for installation in space restricted areas
• Hinges are inside the box
• Environmentally “Friendly”
• Contains expensive fuel delivery spills
• Prevents unauthorized access to fuel
• Standard with Drain Assembly
• Provides method of draining fuel spills
• Various Connection Styles
• Male or Female
• Large Capacity
• 7.5 Gallon Capacity
• Manufactured from high strength mild steel
• Various coatings available
Product name: 9095AA & 9095GBT Overfill Prevention Valves
Finding an effective mechanical overfill prevention valve (OPV) for generator base tanks has been a difficult challenge. The ultimate goal for the OPV is to provide a reliable high-level shut-off in low profile tanks, maximizing the allowable fuel storage capacity.
Now, finally, an answer... the 2" 9095AA and 9095GBT overfill prevention valves! The major benefit of the new 9095 OPV’s is the 1” shut-off height from the top of the tank. Existing mechanical valves on the market are not able to achieve this level of shut off.
While tank owners value the reliability of these valves as well as the accurate shut-off point, tank installers value the ease of installation with in-field float adjustability. Tank manufacturers appreciate that these valves can be installed into integrated spill containment or tank top spill containers (remote fill options will be coming soon). There are product benefits for everyone to enjoy!
Additional features of these valves include:
• Fill adaptor and shut-off mechanism factory assembled to facilitate ease of field installation to a precise fuel level set point
• 5.18" of float height adjustment integrated into the 9095AA
• 1.72" of float height adjustment integrated into the 9095GBT